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The outcome of the eastward displacement of the atmospheric heat source lying on top of the warmest water is drastic change in the global wind cycle circulation.In turn, the end results are severe changes in weather and temperatures around the world.
On occasion, this may result in extreme dry spells and drought.
Indonesia, the Philippines, and Australia mostly witness much drier conditions than usual together with droughts, forest fires and poor crop yields.
The ocean warming off South American coast is a prime example of an El Niño event.
The unusual rainfall and flooding in Peru, Southern California, and Chile are also usually tied to the El Niño climatic conditions.
The warm pacific air is tied to some of the occurrences of serious hurricanes, typhoons, and very cold weather in various parts of the world.
In South America, thunderstorms and severe tropical cyclones (hurricanes) are frequently associated with the drastic change in the global wind cycle circulation because of the eastward displacement of atmospheric heat.
For instance, the 2009 severe winter in the UK was party linked to the effects of El Niño.
In South Korea and Japan, the resultant warm Pacific wind currents are believed to cause the more intense typhoons.
In the eastern side, deeper water (which is cooler compared to the sun-heated warm surface water) gets pulled up from beneath to substitute the water pushed to the west.
So, the normal difference in temperature across the equatorial Pacific is cold water (about 22 degrees Celsius) in the east and warm water (about 30 degrees Celsius) in the west.