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Tangible characteristics, such as shared culture or common visible physical traits, are important because they contribute to the group’s feeling of identity, solidarity, and uniqueness.As a result, the group considers perceived and real threats to its tangible characteristics as risks to its identity.
Ethnicity will continue to play a dominant role in the politics of Afghanistan.
The restoration of national consensus over the democratic process and the political system is key to the country's stability.
Although communal identity provides the foundation for the definition of ethnic groups, disagreement exists over how ethnic identity forms and how it changes over time.
A first school of thought, known as the ethnicity as a fixed characteristic of individuals and communities.
There needs to be a visible measure of accountability and a fair distribution of national resources.
Reconciliation should not be based on narrow ethnic politics or fear but on a pan-Afghan vision.Iran's strategy of watching Americans bleed in Afghanistan and the wider region is contributing to the failure of the NATO mission as a whole.Language, ethnicity, trade, sectarian politics and cultural ties are all tools used by Iran for the promotion of its interest, not for the common good of people in the region.Ethnic conflicts are often accompanied by gross human rights violations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, and by economic decline, state failure, environmental problems, and refugee flows.Violent ethnic conflict leads to tremendous human suffering.ethnic groups: first, the accentuation of cultural traits and, second, the sense that those traits distinguish the group from the members of the society who do not share the differentiating characteristics. Smith, a scholar of ethnicity and nationalism studies, identified ethnic criteria that provide the origins of communal identity.The ethnic divide is increasing, ethnopolitics is on the rise, and both the literature of hate and demagogic politicians are gaining traction.Politicians, intellectuals and opinion leaders talk of ethnic politics openly when addressing audiences made up of their kin, but resort to vague rhetoric while on the national stage.Pakistan believes that the policy of reconciliation will pay off to some extent for what it has invested in the Taliban.They are also observing the ethnic divide in Afghanistan and will obviously try to exploit it for their benefit.Iran is pursuing a policy of its own, shaped by its national security interests.For Iran, having good relations with Kabul is important, yet a central part of Iran's strategy also includes support for non-state actors that can help shape the political landscape and provide a counterweight.