This initiative constituted the most massive governmental attempt to control human fertility and reproduction in human history.These campaigns prioritized reproductive technologies for contraception, abortion, and sterilization in gynecological and obstetric medicine, while downplaying technologies related to fertility treatment.In the late 1980s, one of the consequences was the reorientation of the rationality of governmental funding for research on human in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer.
Song’s group confirmed and legitimized the leadership’s concerns with China’s population problem.
Alternative views offered by dissident social scientists were rejected.
The fear of a looming population explosion in the 1970s led to the Party calling for a solution to curb, and eventually halt, China’s population growth.
The recognition that China’s large population might be a threat to the wellbeing of the country resulted from an influx of Western demographical literature as well as CCP’s political reorientation.
In municipal areas, governmentally funded hospitals deliver most contraceptive and abortive services.
In rural places, farmers often with minimal trainings provided medical care for rural community and conducted basic operations for contraception and abortion, such as the insertion of IUDs and vacuum aspiration abortions, while referring those with more advanced needs to hospitals.
According to a survey by China’s Ministry of Health in 1982, 69% of married Chinese women between the age 15 and 49 were using contraception.
The percentage was identical to the US contraceptive rate among women within a similar age range in the same year.
In the early 1980s, under the pressure of fulfilling the sixth Five-Year Plan’s (1981-1985) goal of confining population growth rate to under , the enforcement of the One-Child Policy intensified.
Instead of encouraging one child per household, the CCP began to restrict every family to one child whenever possible.