What are the different ways in which John Kumalo and Msimangu address the problem of racial injustice?The basic difference between Kumalo and Msimangu is between a political and a spiritual approach to the problem. The church speaks with fine words, he says, and condemns unjust laws, but it has been doing this for fifty years, and things get worse, not better.During the late 1980s, with South Africa internationally isolated, it finally became clear to the ruling Nationalist Party that it could not continue its racist policies. The African National Congress emerged as the ruling party, and Mandela became President.
In 1974, South Africa was expelled from the United Nations.Absalom receives an adequate defense, by a distinguished lawyer, and the case is considered in detail by the judge, who carefully evaluates all the evidence.Because it cannot be established beyond doubt that the other two accused men were at the scene of the crime, they are acquitted, which suggests that this is not a trial in which innocent people are railroaded.In fact, it suggests the opposite, since it is clear that the other two accused were in fact guilty.The argument that condemns Kumalo is that he entered the house with a weapon, the use of which might result in the death of a man who interfered with the burglary.The strike for which Kumalo calls seems to have little effect, but Part III of the novel, which emphasizes the cooperation between white and black people in the revitalizing of Ndotsheni, seems to fulfill Msimangu's words in chapter 7: "I see only one hope for our country, and that is when white men and black men, desiring neither power nor money, but desiring only the good of their country, come together to work for it." 3. Although Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel about injustice, Absalom Kumalo appears on the face of it to receive a fair trial.Since he admitted that he killed Arthur Jarvis, the issue is not one of guilt or innocence but of intent, since he claims that he did not intend to kill.Blacks were barred from many occupations, and wages for blacks were well below what whites earned. During the 1950s, the government created separate bantustans, or homelands, for some groups of black people.Protests against apartheid grew during the 1960s, and the South African government cracked down on black activists.But things got considerably worse before they got better.In 1948, when the novel was first published, the Nationalist Party came to power and created the system of strict racial segregation known as apartheid.