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(During transcription, only one DNA strand serves as a template for RNA synthesis.The other DNA strand remains dormant.) The enzyme moves along the DNA strand and “reads” the nucleotides one by one.A second important type of RNA is transfer RNA (t RNA).
After the “stop” codon is reached, the synthesis of the m RNA comes to an end.
The m RNA molecule leaves the DNA molecule, and the DNA molecule rewinds to form a double helix.
Messenger RNA is synthesized in the nucleus using the DNA molecules.
During the synthesis, the genetic information is transferred from the DNA molecule to the m RNA molecule.
In the synthesis of protein, three types of RNA function. They are the places (the chemical “workbenches”) where amino acids are linked to one another to synthesize proteins.
Ribosomes are found in large numbers along the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and in the cytoplasm of the cell (see Chapter 3).
In this way, a genetic code can be used to synthesize a protein in a distant location.
RNA polymerase, an enzyme, accomplishes m RNA, t RNA, and r RNA synthesis.
In transcription, a complementary strand of m RNA is synthesized according to the nitrogenous base code of DNA.
To begin, the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to an area of one of the DNA molecules in the double helix.