To obtain insight into this complexity, we perform a systematic review of studies in which the demand and supply components of the passenger transportation sector were modelled in an integrated manner along with the dimensions of sustainability.
All the reviewed previous studies had taken into consideration both the economic and environmental dimensions; however, only a few had also considered social development.
On the demand side, we find the consumer who requires vehicles, fuels, technical services, and infrastructure from the market.
On the supply side, we find fuel producers, fuel distributors, vehicle producers, and vehicle dealers who offer vehicles, fuels, and technical services to the market.
The holistic and systematic integration of the dimensions of sustainability along with their relationships and feedback would facilitate a better understanding of the transportation sector and promote the development of better policies for improving the diffusion of passenger electric vehicles.
Ensuring energy security, stopping climate change, improving urban air quality, and alleviating human health issues related to air quality are the main challenges that governments should address in this century.
As previously mentioned, the transportation sector is a complex system and achieving sustainability is a complex problem, both of which have multiple relationships between their elements, and the decisions taken to solve a problem in one part of the system may generate difficulties elsewhere.
Therefore, it is necessary to determine the possible consequences of the solutions in both the transportation system and in the sustainable performance indicators.
Moreover, decisions made by one stakeholder may create difficulties in another part of the system because of the feedback interactions and relationships between the stakeholder and system [11,12].
These stakeholders can be classified according to their function in the transportation sector and the process of diffusion of EVs.