Niemann Gottigen Dissertation

Niemann Gottigen Dissertation-24
C., 7 though recent discoveries in Ecuador indicate human use more than 5,000 years ago.9 Alfred Bühler hypothesized that the Arhuaco, a tribe from the Negro River region, were the first to discover the properties of the drug and spread this knowledge to other neighboring peoples.8,9 Many species of this genus have been grown in Nicaragua, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru since pre-Columbian times.

C., 7 though recent discoveries in Ecuador indicate human use more than 5,000 years ago.9 Alfred Bühler hypothesized that the Arhuaco, a tribe from the Negro River region, were the first to discover the properties of the drug and spread this knowledge to other neighboring peoples.8,9 Many species of this genus have been grown in Nicaragua, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru since pre-Columbian times.

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1,2 It was two dentists, then, who first introduced anesthesia: Horace Wells (1815–1848), with nitrous oxide in 1844, 3–5 and William Thomas Green Morton (1819–1868), with ether in 1846.

6 Local anesthesia, the basis of modern local anesthetics for dentistry and medicine, developed later.

10 Further, according to Bühler, the first written record of the coca leaf is a mention by the Spanish Dominican friar Tomas Ortíz in 1499, 11 a reference which is also cited by other authors. A recent review of documents on Friar Tomas Ortíz (1470–1538) 14 show that he was ordained in the Convent of San Esteban in Salamanca, Spain, in 1511, and it was only later that he set out for America, where he eventually became bishop of Santa Marta (Colombia).

14–16 For some writers, Florentine Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512) was the first European to document the human use of the coca leaf.

The notes that have reached our times, taken by Francisco de Toledo (1514–1584), Viceroy of Peru in his report to the “Patronato de Indias” of the Indies in 1571, 26 Pedro Pizarro 24 as mentioned above, and Francisco Falcon, a lawyer established in Lima 27 in 1582, provide support for this assumption.

Modern authors have been able to verify that after the fall of the Inca empire in 1532, coca consumption spread to the population at large 7,12 as the entire social system underwent drastic change, particularly after 1540.24 Moreover, in the closing lines of his 1571 chronicle, Diego Trujillo, one of Pizarro's soldiers, mentions coca reserves stored in Cuzco, the capital city.25 The reason for the belated mention of the coca leaf and its consumption may lie, as the sixteenth century Spanish chroniclers sustain, in the fact that its use was restricted to the ruling class of the Inca empire and to certain religious rites but did not extend to the population as a whole.Nothing comparable occurred in Asia, Russia, or the Islamic countries, where feudalism persisted in a variety of forms.This general process altered the cultural, political, and religious climate, affecting a significant number of individuals.Vermutlich war es das extrem giftige Dichlordiethylsulfid, das später als Senfgas in die Geschichte des 1. Vermutlich war er selbst das erste Opfer dieses Kampfstoffs, als er 1861 an einer "Lungenverbreiterung" im Goslarer Schwiechelthaus starb. THE development of anesthesia in general and local anesthetics, in particular, required a cultural change.This article reviews the discovery and evolution of local anesthesia from the Spanish discovery of the coca leaf in America, outlining certain ill-known aspects of this early period.contains the highest concentration of the alkaloid known as cocaine in its leaves, up to 0.7–1.8% by weight.Για να εξατομικεύουμε περιεχόμενο, καθώς και για να προσαρμόζουμε τις διαφημίσεις και να μετράμε την απόδοσή τους αλλά και για να παρέχουμε μια ασφαλέστερη εμπειρία, χρησιμοποιούμε cookies.Αν κάνετε κλικ ή μεταβείτε στον ιστότοπο, συμφωνείτε ότι μπορούμε να συλλέγουμε πληροφορίες μέσω των cookies τόσο στο Facebook όσο και έξω από αυτό.

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Comments Niemann Gottigen Dissertation

  • Verschriftlichung der Arbeit - Universitätsmedizin Göttingen
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    Die Dissertation dient als Nachweis, dass Sie in der Lage sind, eine wissenschaftliche Fragestellung zu erfassen und selbstständig mit Erfolg zu bearbeiten.…

  • Sie suchen eine Dissertation oder eine andere Hochschulschrift
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    Anleitung zur Suche nach Hochschulschriften Dissertationen, Habilitationen, Bachelor- und Masterarbeiten. Obergeschoss der SUB Göttingen. Nach einem.…

  • Albert Niemann ; harz-seite.de
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    Studium der Chemie, Pharmazie, Botanik in Göttingen. 1860, Dissertation "Über eine neue organische Base in den Cocablättern". † 19.1.1861, in Goslar.…

  • Albert Niemann chemist - Wikipedia
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    Alma mater, University of Göttingen. Known for, Isolating cocaine from coca leaves. Scientific career. Fields, Chemist · Doctoral advisor · Friedrich Wöhler. Albert Friedrich Emil Niemann May 20, 1834 – January 19, 1861 was a German chemist. He published his finding in 1860 in his dissertation titled Über eine neue.…

  • Albert Niemann chemist - Public Figure Facebook
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    Albert Friedrich Emil Niemann was a German chemist. town hall pharmacy in a href="/pages/w/108157735878329"Göttingen/a, where from 1852. This dissertation earned him his Ph. D. and was published in 1860 in the journal ia.…

  • Albert Niemann Entdecker des Kokains Pharmazeutische.
    Reply

    Jan. 2011. Als Entdecker gilt daher Niemann, der am 18. Juni 1860 seine Dissertation abschloss, die in Göttingen gedruckt wurde 6 und noch im.…

  • Dissertation bm - iwb, TUM
    Reply

    Die Dissertation wurde am 29.3.2012 bei der Technischen Universität München einge- reicht und durch. Frank, T.; Niemann, J.; Westkämper, E. Ein Tool zur lebenslangen Kostenüberwa- chung. wt. gen 2003. Göttingen Cuvillier 2003.…

  • Antje Niemann - SUB Göttingen - Universität Göttingen
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    Antje Niemann. Foto von Antje Niemann. Raum 0.365. Heinrich-Düker-Weg 14. Germany. +49 551 39-5264 Tel. [email protected]

  • Dr. Mareke Niemann
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    Juli 2019. Päd. Mareke Niemann. E-Mail [email protected] Dissertation „Der Schulabstieg in die Hauptschule - eine fallrekonstruktive. und lokaler Entwicklungen Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 09/2018.…

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