C., 7 though recent discoveries in Ecuador indicate human use more than 5,000 years ago.9 Alfred Bühler hypothesized that the Arhuaco, a tribe from the Negro River region, were the first to discover the properties of the drug and spread this knowledge to other neighboring peoples.8,9 Many species of this genus have been grown in Nicaragua, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru since pre-Columbian times.
C., 7 though recent discoveries in Ecuador indicate human use more than 5,000 years ago.9 Alfred Bühler hypothesized that the Arhuaco, a tribe from the Negro River region, were the first to discover the properties of the drug and spread this knowledge to other neighboring peoples.8,9 Many species of this genus have been grown in Nicaragua, Venezuela, Bolivia, and Peru since pre-Columbian times.Tags: Short Essay On Human DevelopmentApa Term Paper TemplateLean Canvas Business PlanCatering Business Plan PdfEngineering Technician Cover LetterThe Martian Chronicles EssayOperations In A Business PlanExample Argumentative Essay TopicsLivestock Farming Business Plan
1,2 It was two dentists, then, who first introduced anesthesia: Horace Wells (1815–1848), with nitrous oxide in 1844, 3–5 and William Thomas Green Morton (1819–1868), with ether in 1846.
6 Local anesthesia, the basis of modern local anesthetics for dentistry and medicine, developed later.
10 Further, according to Bühler, the first written record of the coca leaf is a mention by the Spanish Dominican friar Tomas Ortíz in 1499, 11 a reference which is also cited by other authors. A recent review of documents on Friar Tomas Ortíz (1470–1538) 14 show that he was ordained in the Convent of San Esteban in Salamanca, Spain, in 1511, and it was only later that he set out for America, where he eventually became bishop of Santa Marta (Colombia).
14–16 For some writers, Florentine Amerigo Vespucci (1451–1512) was the first European to document the human use of the coca leaf.
The notes that have reached our times, taken by Francisco de Toledo (1514–1584), Viceroy of Peru in his report to the “Patronato de Indias” of the Indies in 1571, 26 Pedro Pizarro 24 as mentioned above, and Francisco Falcon, a lawyer established in Lima 27 in 1582, provide support for this assumption.
Modern authors have been able to verify that after the fall of the Inca empire in 1532, coca consumption spread to the population at large 7,12 as the entire social system underwent drastic change, particularly after 1540.24 Moreover, in the closing lines of his 1571 chronicle, Diego Trujillo, one of Pizarro's soldiers, mentions coca reserves stored in Cuzco, the capital city.25 The reason for the belated mention of the coca leaf and its consumption may lie, as the sixteenth century Spanish chroniclers sustain, in the fact that its use was restricted to the ruling class of the Inca empire and to certain religious rites but did not extend to the population as a whole.Nothing comparable occurred in Asia, Russia, or the Islamic countries, where feudalism persisted in a variety of forms.This general process altered the cultural, political, and religious climate, affecting a significant number of individuals.Vermutlich war es das extrem giftige Dichlordiethylsulfid, das später als Senfgas in die Geschichte des 1. Vermutlich war er selbst das erste Opfer dieses Kampfstoffs, als er 1861 an einer "Lungenverbreiterung" im Goslarer Schwiechelthaus starb. THE development of anesthesia in general and local anesthetics, in particular, required a cultural change.This article reviews the discovery and evolution of local anesthesia from the Spanish discovery of the coca leaf in America, outlining certain ill-known aspects of this early period.contains the highest concentration of the alkaloid known as cocaine in its leaves, up to 0.7–1.8% by weight.Για να εξατομικεύουμε περιεχόμενο, καθώς και για να προσαρμόζουμε τις διαφημίσεις και να μετράμε την απόδοσή τους αλλά και για να παρέχουμε μια ασφαλέστερη εμπειρία, χρησιμοποιούμε cookies.Αν κάνετε κλικ ή μεταβείτε στον ιστότοπο, συμφωνείτε ότι μπορούμε να συλλέγουμε πληροφορίες μέσω των cookies τόσο στο Facebook όσο και έξω από αυτό.