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There are several modified versions of the ASQ including the Expanded Attributional Style Questionnaire (EASQ), the Content Analysis of Verbatim Explanations (CAVE), and the ASQ designed for testing the optimism of children.The relationship between optimism and health has also been studied with regards to physical symptoms, coping strategies and negative affect for those suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and fibromyalgia.
It has been found that among individuals with these diseases, optimists are not more likely than pessimists to report pain alleviation due to coping strategies, despite differences in psychological well-being between the two groups.
Furthermore, the correlation appears to be attributable to coping style: "That is, optimists seem intent on facing problems head-on, taking active and constructive steps to solve their problems; pessimists are more likely to abandon their effort to attain their goals." The study showed that optimism was a strong predictor of the rate of recovery.
Theories of optimism include dispositional models, and models of explanatory style.
Methods to measure optimism have been developed within both theoretical systems, such as various forms of the Life Orientation Test, for the original definition of optimism, or the Attributional Style Questionnaire designed to test optimism in terms of explanatory style.
In a 6-month later follow-up, it was found that optimists were quicker to resume normal activities.
A number of studies have been done on optimism and psychological well-being.
Behaviourally, these two scores correlate around r = 0.5.
Optimistic scores on this scale predict better outcomes in relationships, Genetic modelling confirms this independence, showing that pessimism and optimism are inherited as independent traits, with the typical correlation between them emerging as a result of a general well-being factor and family environment influences.
"you have been looking for a job unsuccessfully for some time"), and are asked to record a possible cause for the event.
They then rate whether this is internal or external, stable or changeable, and global or local to the event.