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Note: If a long, block quotation such as this is used, the period is placed in front of the parenthesis that begins the citation, not after.MLA In-text Citation Examples: Note: All examples below appear in italics to differentiate from instructions.
– Quotation found in indirect or “secondhand” source The philosopher Alain states that “admiration is not pleasure but a kind of attention. – Reference to volume and page in multivolume work As a painter Andrea was “faultless” (Freedberg 1: 98).
– Reference to whole volume In his second volume, Freedberg gives an account of Andrea’s whole painting career.
Use a comma between the last name and the title of the source if both appear in the parenthetical citation.
The parenthetical information should not repeat information given in your text (e.g., if you mention the author’s name in your text, you include it in the citation).
When it comes to referencing numbers in parenthetical citations, do not include the word “page” or “pages” or the abbreviations “p.” or “pp.”—just the page numbers themselves.
If an electronic source uses paragraph or section numbers instead of page numbers, use the appropriate abbreviation (e.g., “par.”; do not count paragraphs if they are not numbered in the electronic source; if an electronic source does not include page or paragraph numbers, don’t include any numbers in your citation).
Use the block quotation format for quotations more than four lines long: indent one half inch from the left margin, double space the quotation, and do not use quotation marks.
Place the parenthetical citation after the period (or other mark of punctuation) that closes the block quotation.
When you quote or paraphrase a specific portion of a text in a source, give enough information—most typically the author’s last name and the page number—to identify the exact location of the borrowed material.
If you are using two sources from the same author, then you’ll need to reference both the title of the piece along with the author’s name either in the sentence itself or in the parenthetical citation.