According to Dickens (2014b), “these viral infections were precipitated by record levels of rainfall around the peninsula” (p. According to a study by Adams (as cited in Franklin, 2016), 25% of all US federal prisoners have been diagnosed with some form of social disorder.
Adams (as cited in Franklin) contends that this statistic “reflects the de-humanizing conditions of most federal institutions” (p. Even when some central information is missing from a website (e.g., no author, date, or webpage title), you may still cite it as a source if you use the correct formatting.
The following guidelines and examples are taken from the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition, 2nd printing, which details rules and application of APA style in research papers, including in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and references.
For more information, consult the APA Style Manual website.
Citation content can vary depending on the type of source and may include: The numbers refer to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (notes on a page at the end of the paper) that provide source detail.
The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full-note form or a shortened-note form.
Despite these attributes, many drawbacks and shortcoming of citation practices have been reported, including for example honorary citations, circumstantial citations, discriminatory citations, selective and arbitrary citations.
Harvard, MLA, American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA), and other citations systems, because their syntactic conventions are widely known and easily interpreted by readers.
When writing a journal article, literature review, convention paper, or any other academic document, authors must include in-text citations whenever they refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source.
In addition, every time a wok is cited within a paper (in APA, a parenthetical citation), a corresponding entry must be included in the reference list.