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By calculating how bright it appeared from Earth and comparing this to its intrinsic brightness, Astronomers could estimate how much of the star's light had been lost while reaching Earth, and how far away the star actually was. Different elements joining, colliding, breaking apart, and joining again is a very ferocious stage in the life of any planet.In the scale of the Universe, light would take eight minutes to reach the Sun. Even after the Earth formed, when the atmosphere began to stabilize, it was under siege.So even though a star might appear extremely dim, if it had a long period it must actually be extremely large.
Through a combination of gentle collisions and gravity these atoms and molecules began attracting other like-sized material.Though Earth was neatly orbiting the Sun as a rocky mass four and a half billion years ago, no organism could survive there.Radiation from the recent supernova kept the planet extremely hot, its surface molten, and oxygen was non-existent.This geocentric view, backed by the very powerful religions at the time, endured for more than 1,400 years until it was toppled by Copernicus and confirmed by Galileo.Through their observational evidence, and by using the newly invented telescope, they produced data and logic supporting a Sun-centered, heliocentric model of the Solar System.The rise of oxygen formed a protective layer around the Earth and also helped cool the Earth, eventually encasing the planet with ice in a series of "Snowball Earths" 2.4 to 2.2 billion years ago.Some life forms survived, some proliferated, pushing oxygen levels higher. Combining "bio," meaning life, and "sphere," referencing the Earth's rounded surface, English-Austrian Geologist Eduard Suess coins the term that expressed the portion of the Earth that supports life.Ever since the Big Bang, the Universe has been drifting and expanding.The birth and death of stars leave an aftermath of galaxies, planets, and even living organisms.After 10 to 100 million years of this banging, eight spherical, stable planets remained. Forces flatten a young solar system and it begins swirling as a protoplanetary disk of gas and dust.The central stellar embryo may still "feed" off the material collapsing around it and continue to grow.