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No one can deny the significant role which sport and recreation plays in every cut-turn and society across the globe. Key Terms: Sport and Exercise Psychology Clinical Sport Psychologists Educational Sport Psychology Specialists Scientific Method Systematic Approach Control Empirical Critical ... Despite enormous growth in recent years, sports psychology dates back to the early 1900’s and is best ...
Sport Psychology To fully understand sport psychology, we must ask ourselves two very important questions, first, what is sport psychology and second, who is it for?
Put in the most sim-pale way, sport psychology can be an example of psychological knowledge, principles, or methods applied to the world of sport.’ Two psychologists, Bunker and Maguire, say sport psychology is not for psychologists, but is for sport and its participants.’ (Murphy & White, 1978: 2) However, it can be argued that sport psychology, can be for psycho-logy, just as it can be for sports scientists, managers, teachers, administrators, coaches and last but by no means least, the athletes themselves.
With regard to achievement motivation and competitiveness, recent advances have been predicated upon the interest originally stimulated by the Atkinson model of achievement motivation.
‘Atkinson’s n Ach or the need to achieve was taken to be a composite of two independent factors, the motive to achieve success (M) and the motive to avoid failure (M), mediated by the probability of success (P) and the incentive value of success (1-P).’ (Hackfort & Spielberger, 1989: 251) This relationship is represented by the following formula.
‘The prob-lem of anxiety is dealt with with two areas of research: test anxiety and achievement mot i-vat ion.’ (Hackfort &Spielberger, 1989: 247) Presently, the test scale which enjoys the greatest popularity is the second version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory or CS AI-2. Today sport psychology has moved from the simple experiments of ...