The first estate was composed of the highest church officials. They were only two percent of France’s population, but owned twenty percent of the land. The third estate accounted for ninety-eight percent of France’s population.
The first estate was composed of the highest church officials. They were only two percent of France’s population, but owned twenty percent of the land. The third estate accounted for ninety-eight percent of France’s population.They held about ten percent of all the land in France. The third estate was divided into three groups; the middle class, known as the bourgeoisie, the urban lower classes, and the peasant farmers.
In order to justify this assertion, I will examine the evidence from three angles in respective chapters.
The first chapter will consider the nature of Enlightenment musical aesthetics, its foundations in Classical conceptions of music, and its path to the Revolution.
It is commonly believed that the music of the French Revolution (1789-1799) represented an unusual rupture in compositional praxis.
Suddenly patriotic hymns, chansons, operas and instrumental works overthrew the supremacy of music merely for entertainment as the staple of musical life in France.
The French also saw how the Americans overthrew an absolute monarch and obtained freedom (Krieger 484).
The fourth underlying cause was the writings and teachings of several well known philosophes.
Circumstances also heightened the level of violence, which occurred from 1793-1794. Terror is nothing but prompt, severe, inflexible justice; it is therefore an emanation of virtue; it...
Therefore, both theories hold validity, yet the question remains: were there warning signs to this violence before the Revolution even began? Common analysis of Marat is predominantly derived in his own radical written works, however there is also speculation about his character from “blind admirers and passionate enemies.” Marat elicits absolute judgments from his contemporaries and revisionists in regards to his disposition and his role during the French...
The third estate lost about half their income in taxes.
They paid feudal dues, royal taxes, and also owed the corvee, a form of tax paid with work (Krieger 484).